The kidneys are a pair of bean shaped organs, and each is about the size of a fist. They are located on either side of the back, protected inside of the lower part of the rib cage. They help filter blood and remove waste from the body.

Blood flows from the renal artery into the kidneys. Each kidney contains about a million tiny units for filtration known as nephrons. They help filter waste to the urine and then return the filtered blood to the body through the renal vein.

The kidneys also produce urine when they remove waste from the blood. Urine flows out of the kidneys through the ureters, then down to the urinary bladder.

A person can live with just one kidney. When a person is experiencing severe kidney failure, dialysis can filter the blood until they get a kidney transplant or their kidney recovers some function. Some people need to undergo hemodialysis long term.


Basic Tests

Urinalysis, Complete with Microscopic Examination

A Urinalysis, Complete with Microscopic Examination is useful in the evaluation of conditions such as urinary tract infection (UTI), dehydration, and kidney stones.

Uric Acid Blood Test

An Uric Acid Blood Test is used to help diagnose the cause of recurrent kidney stones and to monitor people with gout for stone formation.

Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) Intact Blood Test

A PTH Intact Blood Test diagnoses parathyroid disease and other diseases of calcium homeostasis; monitoring patients undergoing renal dialysis.

Urine Culture Test, Routine

A Urine Culture Test, Routine detects and identifies bacteria and yeast in the urine.

Microalbumin/Creatinine Ratio Urine Test, Random

The Microalbumin/Creatinine Ratio Urine Test, Random is a urine test that may help to determine if kidneys are functioning normally. This test is an early indicator of kidney failure.

Electrolyte Blood Test Panel

The Electrolyte Panel is performed to check for kidney problems, acids in your blood, a sodium or potassium problem and diabetes.

Creatinine Serum Test

A Creatinine Serum Test is a renal function test, providing a rough approximation of glomerular filtration.

Ammonia Plasma Test

This ammonia plasma test measures the amount of Ammonia in the blood, a compound produced by intestinal bacteria, and by cells in the body during the digestion of protein.

Phosphorus Serum Test

Phosphorus testing may be performed to measure high or low levels of phosphorus to determine a variety of differential diagnoses such as: dehydration, renal disease, liver disease, diabetic ketoacidosis. Phosphate levels may increase during the last trimester of pregnancy.

Vitamin D 1,25 Dihydroxy (Calcitriol) Blood Test

A Vitamin D 1,25 Dihydroxy Blood Test is ordered when investigating a problem related to bone metabolism or parathyroid function, possible Vitamin D deficiency or malabsorption.

Microalbumin Urine Test, Random

The random microalbumin urine test checks urine for the presence of the protein albumin in the blood. In individuals whose kidneys are working properly albumin is not present. However, if the kidneys are damaged or diseased, small amounts of albumin will be present in the urine.

Calcium Ionized Serum Test

The Calcium Ionized Serum Test measures the amount of Ionized Calcium, also known as free calcium, in the blood.

Urine Culture, Comprehensive

An Urine Culture, Comprehensive is ordered if Routine Urine Culture was not diagnostic.

Protein and Creatinine Urine Test, Random

A protein and creatinine urine test, random measures the protein/creatinine ratio in a first-morning or random untimed “spot” urine specimen is recommended testing to ascertain chronic kidney disease.

Lactic Acid Dehydrogenase (LD) Blood Test

A LD or LDH Blood Test measures lactic acid dehydrogenase an enzyme that is elevated in case of any tissue damage or injury.

Complement C4 Blood Test

This Complement C4 Blood Test measures the amount of Complement C4 protein in your blood. These proteins are part of your complement system, an important part of your immune system that helps kill bacteria and viruses causing disease.

Complement C3 Blood Test

A Complement C3 Blood Test is used to determine whether deficiencies or abnormalities in the proteins that are part of the complement system are contributing to increased infections or increased autoimmune activity; and to monitor the activity of autoimmune diseases.

Aldosterone Blood Test, LC-MS

The aldosterone blood test is used to evaluate patients with hypertension and for the possibility of hyperaldosteronism.

Cortisol Urine Test, Urinary Free, 24-Hour

A Cortisol Urine Test, Urinary Free is used in the diagnosis of Cushing syndrome (CS) requires evidence of cortisol hypersecretion. While serum cortisol levels fluctuate unpredictably and are strongly dependent on concurrent cortisol-binding globulin (CBG) levels, a 24-hour urine specimen integrates the cortisol production for an entire day and is not affected by CBG. Urinary cortisol reflects the portion of serum-free cortisol filtered by the kidney, and correlates well with cortisol secretion rate.

Protein Electrophoresis Serum Test

A Protein Electrophoresis Serum Test measures the types of protein in the fluid (serum) part of a blood sample.

Calcium Urine Test, 24-Hour

A Calcium Urine Test, 24-Hour measures the level of calcium in your urine.

Protein Total Urine Test, Quantitative, 24-Hour

Used to evaluate and monitor kidney function, and to detect kidney damage.

Beta 2 Microglobulin Serum Test

A beta 2 microglobulin serum test evaluates the severity and prognosis of multiple myeloma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, or non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma; detects kidney damage and distinguishes between glomerular and tubular kidney disorders.

Alkaline Phosphatase Blood Test

The alkaline phosphatase blood test measures the level of the enzyme alkaline phosphatase in the blood.

Urea Nitrogen (BUN) Serum Test

A Urea Nitrogen (BUN) Serum Test is used to measure the amount of urea in the blood.

Cystatin C Blood Test

A Cystatin C Blood Test is used to screen for and monitor kidney dysfunction in those with known or suspected kidney disease.

Albumin Serum Test

Albumin blood test evaluates nutritional status, blood oncotic pressure, evaluation of renal disease with proteinuria, and other chronic diseases.

Erythropoietin (EPO) Serum Test

An EPO Test is a blood disorder serum test used to determine erythropoietin level, an important hormone produced by the kidneys that is critical for the formation of red blood cells by the bone marrow.

Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) Profile Blood Test

An ADH Profile Blood Test includes both ADH and osmolalityADH helps regulate water balance in the body by controlling the amount of water the kidneys reabsorb. The kidneys react to ADH by conserving water and producing urine that is more concentrated.

Complement Total (CH50) Blood Test

A CH50 test is used to help determine any protein abnormalities and deficiencies in the complement system.

Gastrin Blood Test

The Gastrin Blood Test is used to detect an overproduction of gastrin, to help diagnose Zollinger-Ellison syndrome and G-cell hyperplasia, and to monitor for recurrence of a gastrin-producing tumor (gastrinoma).

Creatinine Clearance 24-Hour Urine and Blood Test

A Creatinine Clearance 24-Hour Urine and Blood Test is used to evaluate the rate and efficiency of kidney filtration.

Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies (ANCA) Blood T…

The ANCA Blood Test is used to detect Antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies which (ANCA) are a serological marker associated with vasculitis and glomerulonephritis.

Prealbumin Blood Test

This Prealbumin Blood Test evaluates protein malnutrition, total parenteral nutrition, and liver dysfunction.

Porphyrins Urine Test, Quantitative, Random

The Porphyrins Urine Test is the initial test for Porphyrias.

Oxalate Urine Test, Quantitative, 24-Hour

That Oxalate Urine Test looks for the presence of certain toxic substances in the intestinal tract.

Renin Activity Plasma Test

A Plasma Renin helps determine the cause of hypertension in cases where signs of kidney disease are present.

Microalbumin Urine Test, 24-Hour

A Microalbumin Urine Test is used to check urine for the presence albumin, which is normally found in the blood and filtered by the kidneys.

Aldosterone:Renin Ratio Blood Test

Aldosterone-renin activity ratio blood test measures the levels of the hormones aldosterone and renin in your blood.

Protein Electrophoresis Urine Test, Random

A Protein Electrophoresis Urine Test is a graph with quantitation of total urine protein, urine albumin, urine N1, urine N2, urine N3-globulin fractions if present; quantitation (in %) of M-spike if present.

Sodium Urine Test, 24-Hour

A 24-hour Sodium Urine Test is used in determining the cause of a sodium imbalance and for patients with kidney conditions to determine the cause of damage.

Porphyrins Urine Test, Quantitative, 24-Hour

A Porphyrins Urine Test, Quantitative, 24-Hour is used as follow up if Porphyrins, Quantitative Random Urine comes back abnormal.

Chromatin (Nucleosomal) Antibody Blood Test

The Chromatin (Nucleosomal) Antibody Blood Test is useful in diagnosing SLE (systemic lupus erythmatosis).

Creatinine Urine Test, Random

A Creatinine Urine Test, Random is useful in monitoring kidney function.

Sodium Urine Test, Random

A Sodium Urine Test Random Sodium Urine Test is a work-up volume depletion, acute renal failure, acute oliguria, and differential diagnosis of hyponatremia.

Fluoride Blood Test

The fluoride blood test is typically ordered when someone is experiencing symptoms of fluoride exposure especially if they have had contact with chemicals containing fluoride or work in an industry where airborne exposure to fluoride is common.

Urea Nitrogen Urine Test, 24-Hour

A Urea Nitrogen Urine Testis a Renal function test; coarse nitrogen-wasting test on patients on hyperalimentation; indicate nitrogen balance in hyperalimentation; rule out tap of urinary bladder in amniocentesis, paracentesis.

Protein Total Urine Test, 24-Hour with Creatinine

A Protein Total Urine Test, 24-Hour with Creatinine is used to evaluate and monitor kidney function, and to detect kidney damage.

Magnesium Urine Test, 24-Hour

The Magnesium Urine Test measures the amount of magnesium (an electrolyte) in urine collected over 24 hours.  This test is used to evaluate and manage electrolyte problems in the body.

Pyruvic Acid Blood Test

A Pyruvic Acid Blood Test is used to measure the amount of pyruvate in the blood.

Osmolality Urine Test

An Osmolality Urine Test is useful in monitoring the level of water in the body and to check the ability to produce urine.

PTH Antibody Blood Test

This PTH Antibody Blood Test is used to help evaluate autoimmune disorders involving parathyroid gland that may result in the production of anti-PTH & hypo-parathyroidism.

Amino Acids 24-Hour Urine – Doctor’s Data Test Kit

The amino acid (AA) 24-hour urine aids in the identification of dietary protein adequacy and amino acid balance, gastrointestinal dysfunctions, forms of protein intolerance, vitamin and mineral deficiencies, renal and hepatic dysfunction, psychiatric abnormalities, susceptibility to inflammatory response and oxidative stress, reduced detoxification capacity and many other inherent and acquired disorders in AA metabolism